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THE CHRONICLE OF TOILET IN ENGLAND

Do you know that the word crap which means to defecate, derived from a man’s name? Do you know who installed toiled for Queen Victoria? Do you know who invented water closet? And when was it? Well, this is an amazing paper about a disgusting matter.

As long as man did not have an established abode, he did not have toilet. Ho excreted wherever he likes doing so. When man adopted the idea of a fixed house, he then moved the toilet to the courtyard then within his home. But, the challenge was how to fight the deadly smell? Man has tried many variations of this, i.e. chamber pots which were cleaned manually by the servants or slaves, toilet protruding out from the houses above the river below, or in many instances, people would just enter the stream or river and dispose of the waste directly.
Between the periods 500 to 1500 AD it was a very dark age from the point of view of human hygiene. The rich man’s toilets disposed of waste into the water and land below used by the poorer.
In 1596 the water closet was invented by John Harrington, but it wasn’t adopted on a large scale for almost 200 years. During this time people used an earth toilet as alternative-instead of water. there fore, the cleaning problem remained. In 1738, JF Brondel introduced the valve type flush toilet, and was improved by Alexander Cummings. And the biggest toilet invention was in 1870 by SS Helior, his toilet called optims.
The late 1800’s saw the introduction of sewerage system, described by the designer, Haussmann as “underground galleries which are organ of a big city, working as organs of the body, without being revealed.”
Legend or fact, Thomas Crapper, holder of 9 patents for improvement to drains, water closets, manhole covers and pipe joints, although possibly not responsible for inventing the product he is most often associated with, toilet, made a significant contribution to the plumbing history. It is thought the word ‘crap’ was derived from American World War I soldiers seeing the word T.Crapper printed on tanks and coined the slang “crapper” meaning toilet. T.Crapper is the person who installed toilets for Queen Victoria.

NEW WORDS:
1. excreted: buang air besar
2. human wastes: kotoran manusia
3. dispose: mengatur
4. protruding: menonjol/menjorok
5. drain: parit; menyedot
6. perennial: telah lama/mengendap
7. sewerage system: system pembuangan air besar
8. plumbing: perledengan

QUESTIONS:
1. How was the condition of England and generally Europe during the periods 500 to 1500 in point of view of human hygiene?
2. The word crapper also means toilet, do you know why? Since when it was used?
3. Before having toilet in their hoses, where our ancestors excreted?
4. According to your opinion, how did Queen Victoria does it before Thomas Crapper installed his extravagance toilets?
5. The Englishmen tried hard to invent a convenient and hygiene toilet, in other hand, Indonesian do not, why? Is it because there are a lot of rivers in Indonesia available to be polluted?
6.

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